Allen, C. (1997) Animal cognition and animal minds. In P. Machamer and M. Carrier (eds.) Philosophy and the Sciences of the Mind: Pittsburgh-Konstanz Series in the Philosophy and History of Science vol. 4. Pittsburgh University Press and the Universitatsverlag Konstanz

In this paper I argue for a distinction between unconscious cognitive processes and conscious mental processes and I argue that this distinction can be made empirically tractable for nonhuman animal subjects. The basic idea is to use error detection to get at the multiple ways in which an animal can represent the same state of affairs.

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