Some Core Readings

Descartes - Mechanism & Dualism

Descartes (1641/1647/1901) Meditations I and II (html)

Limits of behaviorism

Chomsky (1959/1967) "Review of B.F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior" (html) (pdf)

Mental representation

Tolman (1948) "Cognitive maps in rats in men" (html) (pdf)

Shepherd & Metzler (1971) "Mental rotation of three-dimensional objects" (jstor) (pdf)

Turing Machines

Read the Wikipedia entry first, then, for a more in-depth treatment see the entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Explore at least one of the interactive sites linked to these articles.

Classical Artificial Intelligence

Newell & Simon (1975) "Computer science as empirical enquiry: symbols and search" (pdf 2.5MB!)

Schank & Abelson (1977) excerpts from Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding (pdf 6.9MB!!)


Marr, selection from Vision (pdf 2.8 MB!)

Block (1996) "What is Functionalism?" (pdf)

Turing Test

Turing (1950) "Computing Machinery & Intelligence"(html) (pdf)

Searle (1980) "Minds, Brains, and Programs" (html)

Basic Neuroscience

Society for Neuroscience (2005) Brain Facts (pdf 6.2MB!!) -- read pages 4-25

Autonomy of Psychology

Fodor (1974) "Special Sciences (or: The disunity of science as a working hypothesis)" (pdf)

Beliefs & Rationality

Dennett "True believers" (pdf 3.6MB!)

Tversky & Kahneman "Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases" (jstor) (pdf 2.1MB!!)

Theory of Mind

Wimmer & Perner (1983) "Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children's understanding of deception" (pdf 2.2MB!)

Gordon (2004) "Folk Psychology as Simulation" (html [SEP entry])

Allen (2006) "Macaque Mirror Neurons: Detecting Intentions Intentionally?" (pdf)

From Connectionism to Dynamical Systems

Pollack (1989) "Connectionism: past, present, and future" (pdf)

Ramsey, Stich, & Garon (1991) "Connectionism, eliminativism, and the future of folk psychology" (jstor) (pdf 2.6MB!!)

Brooks (1991) "Intelligence without representation" (pdf)

Clark (1998) "Embodiment and the Philosophy of Mind" (pdf)

van Gelder (1995) "What might cognition be if not computation?" (pdf 3.7MB!!)

Grossberg (2003/2000) "Adaptive Resonance Theory" (pdf)

Beer (2000) "Dynamical approaches to cognitive science" (pdf)

Harvey et al. (2005) "Evolutionary Robotics: A new scientific tool for studying cognition" (pdf)


Damasio ch 1 (pdf 2.7MB!) and ch 7 (pdf 5.7MB!!) from Descartes' Error

Infant & Animal Cognition

Hauser & Carey "Building a cognitive creature from a set of primitives" pdf of text and figures [pdf 3.7MB!].