Department of History & Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh
Distinguished Professor (2017—)
Director of Graduate Studies (2020—)

1101 Cathedral of Learning, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260
Phone: 412-624-5896 Fax: 412-624-6825
Email: colin.allen at pitt.edu

The Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh
Resident Fellow (2018—)
Associate Director (2020—)

Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh
Faculty member (2017—)

Awards

2020 Elected Fellow of the American Assocation for the Advancement of Science

2017 Changjiang Chair Professorship, Ministry of Education, People's Republic of China.

2013 Jon Barwise Prize for Computing and Philosophy, American Philosophical Association.

2010 Alexander von Humboldt Research Prize, Germany.

2008 Indiana University Graduate and Professional Student Faculty Mentor of the Year

2008-2009 President of the Society for Philosophy & Psychology

2002 Scholarly Achievement Award: International Institute for Advanced Studies in Cybernetics, Baden-Baden, Germany

2001 Phi Kappa Phi: Elected member

2022 Templeton World Charity Foundation, $600,000 for "Joyful by nature: a comparative approach to the evolution and function of joy in intelligent species", co-PI with Ximena Nelson (Canterbury, NZ), Alex Taylor (Auckland, NZ), Erica Cartmill (UCLA), Heidi Lynn (So. Alabama), Vincent Janik (St. Andrews, Scotland)

2022 Pitt Data & Society award, $8,000 to Dasha Pruss and Colin allen for "Algorithmic Fairness in Practice: Judge Discretion and the Pennsylvania Sentence Risk Assessment Instrument."

2020 Templeton World Charity Foundation, $232,000 for "Wisdom in the Machine Age"

2017 National Science Foundation (NSF) award number 1656284, $123,657 for Developing an Integrative Approach to Computational and Digital History and Philosophy of Science , Co-PI with Manfred Laubichler, PI, Jane Maienschein & Stephen Weldon Co-PIs.

2016 American Philosophical Assocation, $3,000 for "Gender in the SEP"

2016 Consortium for the Study of Religion, Ethics, and Society, IU, $7,500 for a workshop on "The Origins of Awe and Wonder", with Tom Schoenemann

2015 Templeton Foundation, $3.2 million for "Evolution of Human Cognition", co-PI with Kathy Schick, Nick Toth, Tom Schoenemann, Peter Todd, Stone Age Institute, Bloomington, IN

2015 IU Vice President for Research, $14,500 bridge funding for "Darwin's Semantic Voyage"

2015 Residential Fellowship, International Center for Jefferson Studies, Monticello, VA

2015 Hathi Trust Research Center Advanced Collaborative Research Award (staff support from HTRC)

2014 IU Vice President for Research, $38,350 for "Modeling Expertise with Biographically Plausible Datasets".

2012 Assembling the tree of consciousness, $150,000 (NSF 1230829) Co-PI/Postdoc Michael Trestman.

2012 IU Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning, $1,000 eText Grant for development of online course materials for Q101.

2012 IU Institute for Advanced Studies workshop minigrant, $5,000 for "What can we learn from 500 million words?", with Melody Dye.

2012 IU Vice President collaborative funding award, $10,000 for "DogCam", with Nicholas Port, co-PI, and the Center for the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior.

2012 Digging by Debating: Linking massive datasets to specific arguments, co-PI Katy Börner, $125,000 (NEH HJ-50092-12); joint project with UK co-PIs Andrew Ravenscroft, Chris Reed, David Bourget (UK portion funded by JISC).

2011 Linked and Populating the Digital Humanities, $179,671 (NEH HG-50032-11); co-PI Mathias Niepert, University of Mannheim (German portion funded by DFG €126,400).

2011 $500 award as mentor for IU Provost's Undergraduate and Creative Activities awardee Jaimie Murdock.

2010 Virtuous Empathy: Scientific and Humanistic Investigations, $200,000 Arete Initiative award to IU team, Rich Miller P.I.

2009-2011 InPhO @ Work: providing integrated access to philosophy, $400,000 (NEH PW-50401-09)/p>

2009-2010 IU Institute for Advanced Studies Empathy Workshop $3,000 research bursary

2009-2010 IU New Frontiers in the Arts & Humanities $20,000 award for visiting speakers on "neuroethics" [with Brian Schrag]

2009 (Fall) IU College of Arts and Sciences "Themester" on "Evolution, Diversity, and Change" $14,000 award for visiting speakers [with Lisa Lloyd]

2007-2008 InPhO: the Indiana Philosophy Ontology project (NEH HD-50203-07 $29,800).

2006-2007 IU New Frontiers in the Arts & Humanities [with Karola Stotz] $17,000 for "Reconciling Nature and Nurture in the Study of Behavior" conference

2006-2007 IU New Frontiers in the Arts & Humanities $43,000 for "Automatic Metacontent Management for Dynamic Reference Works"

2006 IU Arts & Humanities New Perspectives [with Jason Baker] $20,000 for "Future Directions in Biology Studies" conference

2005 IU Active Learning Grant $1,500 for course enhancement: "Active Learning for Rational Decision Making"

2004-2007 NEH Challege Grant: up to $500,000 in matching funds to Solinet to support partnership with Stanford Encyclopedia

2003 TAMU Faculty Release Fellowship: TAMU Center for Humanities Research; spring semester teaching release; project title "What is culture? Taking a nonhuman perspective"

2002 Mellon Foundation Grant: $43,000 to hire consultant to develop business plan for the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

2001 Associate Provost for Information Technology, Technology in the Classroom Award: $39,500 for Computerized Logic Instruction Cognitive Development Team (with Chris Menzel)

2000--2001 Faculty Development Leave: Texas A&M University leave; 50% salary, 9 months

2000 Association of Former Students Distinguished Teaching Award: $4,000 University-level teaching award

1999 Big 12 Faculty Fellow: $2,500 for travel to University of Colorado, Boulder

1996 TAMU Faculty Minigrant: "Assessing cognition in pigs": $1,435

1996 TAMU Electronic Learning Initiatives Grant: $5,000 for development of web-based logic proof checker

1996 TAMU Computing in the Classroom Grant: $12,500 for purchase of equipment; with Chris Menzel

1995 TAMU Teaching Incentive Grant: $1,000 for purchase of Quine videos; with Herman Saatkamp

1995 TAMU Honors Course Development Grant: $2,000 for Philosophy of Mind with special emphasis on animal cognition

1994-95 NSF Professional Development Fellowship: "Philosophy and Cognitive Ethology", Boulder, Colorado: $56,000

1994 TAMU Faculty Minigrant: "Philosophy and Cognitive Ethology": $1,000

1993 NEH Summer Seminar: "Mental Representation", University of Arizona, Prof. Robert Cummins (director): $3,500

1992-93 Scholar, TAMU Center for Teaching Excellence: $5,000

1990 TAMU Honors Course Development Grant: $1,500 for "Minds, Brains, and Computers

Publications

5. Wallach, W. and Allen, C. (2009) Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong. New York: Oxford University Press. [Korean Translation, Medici Media, Seoul, 2015. Chinese Translation, Peking University Press, Beijing, 2017.]

4. Bekoff, M., Allen, C. & Burghardt G.M. (eds.) (2002) The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. [An anthology of original essays on comparative psychology, cognitive ethology, and the study of animal cognition.]
Open access from MIT Press.

3. Allen, C., Bekoff, M. & Lauder, G. (eds.) (1998) Nature's Purposes: Analyses of Function and Design in Biology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. [An anthology of previously published essays on the role of teleology in biology.]

2. Cummins, D. & Allen, C. (eds.) (1998) The Evolution of Mind. New York: Oxford University Press. [An anthology of original essays on evolutionary theory, psychology, and ethology.]

1. Allen, C. & Bekoff, M. (1997) Species of Mind: the Philosophy and Biology of Cognitive Ethology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. [An original monograph on cognitive ethology. Translated 1998 as Il Pensiero Animale, McGraw-Hill, Italy.]

2. Logic Primer Allen, C. & Hand, M. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

1. Lisp Primer Allen, C. & Dhagat, M. [e-book]

124. Bastos, A., Taylor, A., Brown, R., and Allen, C. (forthcoming)* "The signature testing approach for mapping biological and artificial intelligences" Trends in Cognitive Sciences in press.

123. Karlan, B. and Allen, C. (2022/online)* "Engineered Wisdom for Learning Machines" Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence doi:10.1080/0952813X.2022.2092559

122. Allen, C. and Murdock, J. (forthcoming)*† LDA Topic Modeling for History & Philosophy of Science. In Ramsey, G., De Block, A.(Eds.) The Dynamics of Science: Computational Frontiers in History and Philosophy of Science. Pittsburgh University Press; Pittsburgh. [preprint]

121. Tramacere, A. and Allen, C. (2022)* Temporal binding: digging into animal minds through time perception. Synthese 200, 1 doi:10.1007/s11229-022-03456-w

120. Weinberger, N. and Allen, C. (2022)* Static-Dynamic Hybridity in Dynamical Models of Cognition. Philosophy of Science 89(2): 283-301. doi:10.1017/psa.2021.27 open access preprint

119. Allen C. (2021)† Cold noses provide hot take on social cognition. Learning & Behavior 49:263–264. doi: 10.3758/s13420-021-00475-4

118. O'Sullivan, S., Leonard, S., Holzinger, A., Allen, C., Battaglia, F., Nevejans, N., van Leeuwen, F.W.B., Sajid, M.I., Friebe, M., Ashrafian, H., Heinsen, H., Wichmann, D., Hartnett, H, Gallagher, A.G. (2020)* Operational framework and training standard requirements for AI‐empowered robotic surgery. International Journal for Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery 2020; 16e2020. doi: 10.1002/rcs.2020.

117. Ravenscroft, A. & Allen, C. (2019)* Finding and Interpreting Arguments: An Important Challenge for Humanities Computing and Scholarly Practice. Digital Humanities Quarterly 13(3).000436.

116. Allen, C. & Neal, J., (2019)*† Teleological Notions in Biology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2019 Edition) Edward N. Zalta (ed.) URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2019/entries/teleology-biology/ [Major expansion of 2003 version with new coauthor Jacob Neal.]

115. O'Sullivan, S., Nevejans, N., Allen, C., Blyth, A., Leonard, S., Pagallo, U., Holzinger, K., Holzinger, A., Sajid, M.I., Ashrafian, H. (2018)* Legal, Regulatory and Ethical Frameworks or Standards for AI and Autonomous Robotic Surgery. International Journal of Medical Robotics 2018 Nov 5:e1968. doi: 10.1002/rcs.1968

114. Murdock, J., Allen, C., & DeDeo, S. (2018)* Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to the Development of Darwin’s Origin of Species. Current Research in Digital History vol. 1. doi: 10.31835/crdh.2018.14

113. Rossi, Alejandra, Parada, Francisco, Stewart, Rosemary, Flynn, Casey, Demas, Gregory E., Allen, Colin (2018)* Hormonal correlates of exploratory and play-related behavior in domestic dogs. Frontiers in Psychology 9:1559; doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01559

112. Sluka, Christina M., Stanko, Kathleen, Campbell, Alexander, Cáceres, Johanel, Panoz-Brown, Danielle, Wheeler, Aidan, Bradley, Jordan, Allen, Colin (2018)* Incidental spatial memory in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Learning & Behavior, 46:513-521 doi: 10.3758/s13420-018-0327-0 [readcube version]

111. Wang Xiaohong, Colin Allen, Pu Jianghuai & Li Yingna (2018)* 人文知识发现的计算机实现——对“汉典古籍”主题建模的实证分析 (Translation: To discover humanities knowledge by computer:  an empirical analysis of topic modeling the 'Handian' ancient Chinese classics.) Journal of Dialectics of Nature 40 (serial No.236): 50-58.

110. Murdock, J, Allen, C, Börner, K, Light, R, McAlister, S, Ravenscroft, A, Rose, R, Rose, D, Otsuka, J, Bourget, D, Lawrence, J, Reed, C (2017)* Multi-level computational methods for interdisciplinary research in the HathiTrust Digital Library. PLoS ONE 12(9): e0184188. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184188

109. Allen, C., Luo, H., Murdock, J., Pu, J, Wang, X., Zhai, Y., Zhao, K. (2017)* Topic Modeling the Hàn diăn Ancient Classics. Cultural Analytics: 10.12.17 doi: /10.22148/001c.11882 [Published with supplemental dataset, Harvard Dataverse doi: 10.7910/DVN/3QXX29 ]

108. Allen, C. (2017)* On (Not) Defining 'Cognition'. Synthese 194(11): 4233-4249 doi: 10.1007/s11229-017-1454-4 | read-only version.

107. Davison, CB, Allen, C (2017)* Approaching Machine Ethics: Topics in Technical Education. The CTE Journal 5 (1): 35-41. pdf

106. Allen, C. (2017)† Associative Learning. In K. Andrews & J. Beck (Eds.) Routledge Companion to Animal Minds New York: Routledge, pp. 401-408.

105. Murdock, J., Allen, C., & DeDeo, S. (2017)* Exploration and Exploitation of Victorian Science in Darwin's Reading Notebooks. Cognition 159: 117-126. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2016.11.012

104. Allen, C. (2016)† Animal Pain (excerpted from Allen 2004). In S.J. Armstrong & R.G. Botzler (Eds.) The Animal Ethics Reader, 3rd Edition. Routledge, pp. 130-132.

103. Jaimie Murdock & Colin Allen (2015)* Visualization Techniques for Topic Model Checking. Proceedings of the 29th AAAI Conference (AAAI-15). Austin, Texas, USA, January 25-29, 2015.

102. Allen, C. (2015)* Do Humans Dream of Emotional Machines? In A. Coplan and D. Davies (Eds.) Blade Runner (Philosophers on Film). Routledge, New York, pp. 86-99.

101. Huber, J., Sztyler, T., Noessner, J., Murdock, J., Allen, C., & Niepert, M. (2014)† LODE: Linking Digital Humanities Content to the Web of Data. Proceedings of the 14th ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL). London, UK. [IEEE/JCDL / arXiv preprint]

100. Allen, C. (2014)† Models, Mechanisms, and Animal Minds. The Southern Journal of Philosophy 52 (Spindel Supplement): 75-97. doi: 10.1111/sjp.12072

99. Landy, D., Allen, C., and Zednik, C. (2014)* A perceptual account of symbolic reasoning. Frontiers in Psychology 5: article 275. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00275

98. Rossi, A., Smedema, D., Parada, F., and Allen, C. (2014)*† Visual attention in dogs and the evolution of non-verbal communication. In Horowitz, A., (ed.) Domestic Dog Cognition and Behavior. Berlin: Springer, pp. 133-154. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-53994-7_6.

97. Allen, C. & Trestman, M. (2014)*† Animal Consciousness. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition), E.N. Zalta (ed.), URL=http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2014/entries/consciousness-animal. [Major expansion of 2009 version with new coauthor Michael Trestman.]

96. Allen, C. (2014)*† Umwelt or Umwelten? How should shared representation be understood given such diversity? Semiotica 198: 137-158 doi:10.1515/sem-2013-0105

95. Rossi A, Parada FJ, Haga Z, Grooteboer C, Lenoir M, Wels H, Savelsbergh GJP, Bekoff M, Allen C (2013). Eye-tracking the gaze of dogs and humans in a pointing gesture study. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research 8, 4: e41. doi:10.1016/j.jveb.2013.04.049

94. Allen, C. and Bekoff, M. (2013)† Animal minds, cognitive ethology, and ethics. In Klaus Petrus and Markus Wild (eds.) Animal Minds and Animal Ethics: Connecting Two Separate Fields, Bielefeld, Germany: Transcript Verlag; pp. 37-58. [This is a slightly revised version of Allen & Bekoff 2007.]

93. Allen, C. and the InPhO Group (2013)*† Cross-cutting classification schemes in the digital humanities. Isis 104: 573-583.

92. Allen, C. (2013)* Ethics, law, and the science of fish welfare. Between the Species 16:68-85.

91. Allen, C. (2013) Methodological Questions Begged. Behavior & Philosophy 39/40: 83-87.

90. Zappettini, S. and Allen, C. (2013) Where is the Ethology? BBS Commentary on Jeffery et al. "Navigating in a three-dimensional world", Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36: 570-571.

89. Allen, C. (2013)*† Symbols as scaffolding. In Linnda Caporael, James Griesemer and William Wimsatt (Eds.) Developing Scaffolds in Evolution, Culture and Cognition, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 231-248.

88. Allen, C. (2013)*† The geometry of partial understanding. American Philosophical Quarterly 50: 249-262. [Translated as 部分理解几何学 by WANG Xiaohong and SUN Wenqi. Journal of Xi′an Jiaotong University (Social Sciences) Vol.38 (Sum No.147) 82-91. DOI:10.15896/j.xjtuskxb.201801009.]

87. Allen, C. (2013)*† Information and Uncertainty in Meerkats and Monkeys. In U. Stegmann (Ed.) Animal Communication Theory: Information and Influence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 319-335.

86. Murdock, J., Buckner, C., Allen, C. (2013)* Evaluating Dynamic Ontologies. In Fred, Ana, Dietz, Jan L.G., Liu, Kecheng, Filipe, Joaquim (Eds.) Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management. Series: Communications in Computer and Information Science vol. 272. Berlin: Springer; pp. 258-275. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-29764-9_18.

85. Allen, C. (2013)*† Fish cognition and consciousness. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26: 25-39; doi:10.1007/s10806-011-9364-9.

84. Wallach, W. and Allen C. (2013)*† Framing Robot Arms Control. Ethics & Information Technology 15 (2): 125-135 doi:10.1007/s10676-012-9303-0.

83. Allen, C. (2012)† Commentary on Yudkowsky on "Friendly Artificial Intelligence". In Amnon H. Eden, James H. Moor, Johnny Søraker, and Eric Steinhart (Eds.) Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment. The Frontiers Collection, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 195-196. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-32560-1.

82. Allen, C. & Wallach, W. (2012)† Commentary on Omohundro on "Rationally-shaped artificial intelligence." In Amnon H. Eden, James H. Moor, Johnny Søraker, and Eric Steinhart (Eds.) Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment. The Frontiers Collection, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 177-179. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-32560-1.

81. Allen, C. (2012)*† Private Codes and Public Structures. In D. McFarland, K. Stenning, and M. McGonigle-Chalmers (Eds.), The Complex Mind: An Interdisciplinary Approach. London: Palgrave-Macmillan, pp. 223-242.

80. Allen, C., Todd, P.M., Weinberg, J.M. (2012)*† Reasoning and Rationality. In R. Samuels, E. Margolis, S.P. Stich (Eds.) Oxford Handbook in Philosophy of Cognitive Science, New York: Oxford University Press, chapter 2, pp. 41-59.

79. Murdock, J., Allen, C. (2011)* InPhO for All: Why APIs Matter. Journal of the Chicago Colloquium of Digital Humanities and Computer Science 1(3): 1-6.

78. Allen, C. and Wallach, W. (2011)*† Wise machines? On the Horizon 19(4):253-258. doi: 10.1108/10748121111179376

77. Townsend, S., Allen, C., Manser, M. (2011)* A simple test of vocal individual recognition in wild meerkats. Biology Letters 8(2): 179-182. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0844.

76. Stotz, K., Allen, C. (2011)*† From cell-surface receptors to higher learning: A whole world of experience. In K.S. Plaisance and T.A.C. Reydon (Eds.) Philosophy of Behavioral Biology, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Berlin: Springer: pp. 85-123. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-1951-4_5

75. Allen, C., Wallach, W. (2011)† Moral Machines: Contradiction in Terms, or Abdication of Human Responsibility? In P. Lin, K. Abney, G. Bekey (Eds.) Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics. Cambridge: MIT Press, 55-68.

74. Otsuka, J., Turner, T., Lloyd, E.A., Allen, C. (2011)* Why the Causal View of Fitness Survives, Philosophy of Science 78: 209-224. doi 10.1086/659219

73. Landy, D., Allen, C., Anderson, M.L. (2011)*† Conceptual discontinuity involves recycling old processes in new domains: Commentary on Précis of Susan Carey's The Origin of Concepts, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34(3):136-137.

72. Wallach, W., Allen, C., Franklin, S. (2011)† Consciousness and Ethics: Artificially Conscious Moral Agents. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 3 (1): 177-192. doi:10.1142/S1793843011000674

71. Buckner, C., Niepert, M., and Allen, C. (2011)*† From encyclopedia to ontology: toward dynamic representation of the discipline of philosophy. Synthese 182: 205-233 doi:10.1007/s11229-009-9659-9

70. Rossi, A., Parada FJ., & Allen, C. (2010)* DogCam: A way to measure visual attention in dogs. Proceedings of Measuring Behavior 2010, 7th International Conference on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research (Eindhoven, The Netherlands, August 24-27, 2010). Edited by A.J. Spink, F. Grieco, O.E. Krips, L.W.S. Loijens, L.P.J.J. Noldus, and P.H. Zimmerman. Wageningen: Noldus, 226-229.

69. Murdock, J., Buckner, C., Allen, C. (2010)* Two Methods for Evaluating Dynamic Ontologies. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Development (KEOD 2010), Valencia, Spain, 2010, p. 110-122.

68. Theiner, G., Allen, C., Goldstone, R. (2010)†* Recognizing group cognition. Cognitive Systems Research, 11: 378-395. doi:10.1016/j.cogsys.2010.07.002.

67. Eckert, K, Niepert, M., Niemann, C., Buckner, C., Allen, C., Stuckenschmidt, H. (2010)* Crowdsourcing the Assembly of Concept Hierarchies. In Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL), Brisbane, Australia, ACM Press, 2010.

66. Wallach, W., Franklin, S., Allen, C. (2010)* A conceptual and computational model of moral decision making in human and artificial agents. Topics in Cognitive Science 2(3): 454-485 doi:10.1111/j.1756-8765.2010.01095.x

65. Allen, C. (2010)† Artificial life, artificial agents, virtual realities. In Floridi, L. The Cambridge Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics, Cambridge University Press, 219-233.

64. Allen, C. (2010)* Mirror, mirror, in the brain. What does the monkey stand to gain? Noûs 44 (2): 372-391; reprinted in Grammont F, Legrand D & Livet P (Eds.) (2009) Naturalizing Intention in Action. An interdisciplinary approach. The MIT Press and ENS Editions, pp. 91-113.

63. Allen, C. (2009)*† Animal Consciousness. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2009 Edition), E.N. Zalta (ed.), URL=http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2009/entries/consciousness-animal. [Major expansion of 2004 version.]

62. McAninch, A., Goodrich, G., and Allen, C. (2009)*† Animal communication and neo-expressivism. In R. W. Lurz (ed.) Philosophy of Animal Minds: New Essays on Animal Thought and Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, pp. 128-144.

61. Niepert, M. Buckner, C., Allen, C. (2009)* Working the Crowd: Design principles and early lessons from the social-semantic web. In Proceedings of Workshop on Web 3.0: Merging Semantic Web and Social Web 2009 (SW)^2 Turin, Italy, June 29, 2009, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073, online http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-467/paper4.pdf.

60. Sufka, K.J., Weldon, M., and Allen, C. (2009)† The Case for Animal Emotions: Modeling Neuropsychiatric Disorders. In John Bickle (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Neuroscience. Oxford University Press, 522-536.

59. Allen, C., Grau, J.W., and Meagher, M.W. (2009)† The Lower Bounds of Cognition: What Do Spinal Cords Reveal? In John Bickle (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Neuroscience. Oxford University Press, 129-142.

58. Allen, C. (2009)† Ethology and the Study of Behavioral Evolution. In M. Ruse and J.Travis (ed.) Evolution: The First Four Billion Years Harvard University Press: 541-543.

57. Vigo, R., and Allen, C. (2009)* How to reason without words: Inference as categorization. Cognitive Processing 10: 77-88 doi:10.1007/s10339-008-0220-4

56. Allen, C. (2008)† Animal Consciousness. In M.J. Benton (ed.) The Seventy Great Mysteries of the Natural World. Thames & Hudson: pp. 251-253. Translated and reprinted with same pagination in these editions: Die 70 grossen Wunder der Natur, Frederking & Thaler, München, Germany, 2008; De zeventig grootste mysteries van den natuur, Thoth, Bussum, Netherlands, 2008; Sedmdesát velkych záhad sveta prírody odhalovánu tajemství nasí planety, Slovart, Prague, 2009; Sedemdesiat vel'kych záhad prírody odhal'ovanie tajomstiev nasej planéty, Slovart, Bratislava, 2009; Hetven rejtély a természet világából bolygónk titkainak nyomában, Athenaeum, Budapest, 2009; Sedemdesette golemni zakadki na divata priroda razkrivane na taynite na nashata planeta, Riva, Sofia, 2009;

55. Allen, C., Buckner, C., & Niepert, M. 2008*† The World is Not Flat: Expertise and InPhO. First Monday [Online], Volume 13 Number 8 (20 August 2008).

54. Crowley, S. & Allen, C. 2008† Animal Behavior: E pluribus unum? In M. Ruse (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Biology. Oxford University Press: pp. 327-348.

53. Niepert, M., Buckner, C. and Allen, C. 2008* Answer set programming on expert feedback to populate and extend dynamic ontologies. In Proceedings of 21st FLAIRS. AAAI Press, 2008; 500-505.

52. Allen, C., Wallach, W., & Smit, I. 2008*† Machine Morality: Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches for Modelling Human Moral Faculties. A.I. and Society: 22(4): 565-582. doi:10.1007/s00146-007-0099-0

51. Allen, C. 2007† Animal Pain. In M. Bekoff (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Human-Animal Relationships Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.

50. Goodrich, G. & Allen, C. 2007†* Conditioned Anti-Anthropomorphism. Comparative Cognition and Behavior Reviews 2: 147-150.

49. Niepert, M., Buckner, C., and Allen, C. 2007* A dynamic ontology for a dynamic reference work. In Rasmussen, E.M., Larson, R.R., Toms, E., and Sugimoto, S. Proceedings of the 7th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 18-23, 2007, pp. 288-297.

48. Allen, C. & Bekoff, M. 2007*† Animal Minds, Cognitive Ethology, and Ethics. Journal of Ethics 11: 299-317. [Reprinted 2018 in Velmans, M. (ed.) (2018) Consciousness (Critical Concepts in Psychology) Major Works Series, London: Routledge.]

47. Allen, C. & Bekoff M. 2007*† Animal consciousness. In M. Velmans & S. Schneider (eds.) Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. New York: Blackwell Publishing; pp. 58-71.

41. Allen, C., Fuchs, P.N., Shriver, A. & Wilson, H. 2005*† Deciphering Animal Pain In M. Aydede (ed.) Pain: New Essays on the Nature of Pain and the Methodology of its Study. MIT Press; pp. 352-366 .

40. Allen, C. & Bekoff, M. 2005*† Animal play and the evolution of morality: an ethological approach. Topoi 24, 125-135 doi:10.1007/s11245-005-5050-8

39. Shriver, A. & Allen, C. 2005*† Consciousness might matter very much. Philosophical Psychology 18: 103-111 doi:10.1080/09515080500085437

38. Allen, C. 2004† Is anyone a cognitive ethologist? Biology & Philosophy 19: 589-607. doi:10.1007/sBIPH-004-0527-1

37. Allen, C. 2004* Animal Pain Noûs 38: 617-643 jstor

36. Allen, C. 2004† Animal Consciousness. Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, M. Bekoff (ed.), Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.

35. Allen, C. 2003† Consciousness, Animal. Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, L. Nadel (ed.), London: Nature Publishing Group (Macmillan), pp. 733-737.

34. Bekoff, M. & Allen, C. 2002† "The Evolution of Social Play: Interdisciplinary Analyses of Cognitive Process" In M. Bekoff, C. Allen, G.M. Burhgardt (eds.) The Cognitive Animal, MIT Press, pp. 426-436.

33. Allen, C., Nodelman, U. & Zalta, E.N. 2002*† "The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Developed Dynamic Reference Work" Metaphilosophy, 33, Jan. 210-228. [Reprinted in J. H. Moor and T. Ward Bynum (eds.) CyberPhilosophy: The Intersection of Philosophy and Computing, Oxford, UK: Blackwell, pp. 201-218.

32. Allen, C. 2002*† Real traits, real functions? In Ariew, A., Cummins, R. & Perlman, M. (eds.) Functions: New Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology and Biology. New York: Oxford University Press; pp. 373-389.

31. Allen, C. 2001*† A tale of two froggies. In J. McIntosh (ed). Naturalism, Evolution, & Intentionality, University of Calgary Press (Canadian Journal of Philosophy Supplementary Volume 2001); pp. 106-115. doi: 10.1080/00455091.2001.10715998 [preprint]

30. Allen, C. 2001† Cognitive Relatives and Moral Relations. In Beck, B.B., Stoinski, T.S., Hutchins, M., Maple, T.S., Norton, B., Rowan, A., Stevens, B.F. & Arluke, A. (eds). Great Apes and Humans: The ethics of coexistence. Smithsonian Institute Press; pp. 261-273.

29. Allen, C., Bekoff, M. & Gruen, L. 2001* The ethical limits of domestication: a response to Henry Heffner's arguments . Anthrozoös: 14 (3): 130-134.

28. Allen, C. 2001† Philosophy of cognitive ethology. Entry and Annotated Bibliography in A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind, M. Nani and M. Marraffa (eds.), University of Rome, Italy. URL = http://host.uniroma3.it/progetti/kant/field/ceth.htm.

27. Allen, C., Varner, G. & Zinser, J. 2000*† Prolegomena to any future artificial moral agent. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence: 12:251-261. doi: 10.1080/09528130050111428

26. Allen, C. 2000† "Where pigs and people fear to tread." In Bekoff, M. (ed.) The Smile of a Dolphin. New York: Discovery Books; 90-91.

25. Allen, C. 1999*† Animal concepts revisited: the use of self-monitoring as an empirical approach. Erkenntnis 51(1):33-40. [Reprinted 1999 in Evolution and Cognition, 5(2): 123-127.] [Translated 2005 as "Tierbegriffe neu betrachtet. Ein empirischer Ansatz: Die Analyse einer Selbssteuerung", in Dominik Perler, Markus Wild (eds.) Der Geist der Tiere, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2005, pp. 191-200.]

24. Bekoff, M., Allen, C. & Grant, M. 1999* "Feeding Decisions by Steller's Jays (Cyanocitta stelleri): The Utility of a Logistic Regression Model For Analyses of Where, What, and With Whom to Eat." Ethology: 105:393-406.

23. Allen, C. 1999*† "Teleological Notions in Biology" The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 1999 Edition), E.N. Zalta (ed.), URL = http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum1999/entries/teleology-biology/.

22. Allen, C. 1998† "The discovery of animal consciousness: an optimistic assessment." Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 10:217-225.

21. Bekoff, M., Allen, C. & Wolfe, A. 1998* "Feeding behavior in Steller's Jays (Cyanocitta stelleri): effects of food type and social context." Bird Behavior 12:79-84

20. Allen, C. 1998*† "Assessing animal cognition: ethological and philosophical perspectives." Journal of Animal Science 76:42-47.

19. Allen, C. & Saidel, E. 1998† The evolution of reference. In D. Cummins & C. Allen (eds.) The Evolution of Mind. Oxford University Press, pp. 183-203. [Translated 2005 as "Die Evolution der Referenz" , in: Dominik Perler, Markus Wild (eds.), Der Geist der Tiere, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2005, pp. 323-356.]

18. Bekoff, M. & Allen, C. 1998† "Intentional communication and social play: How and why animals negotiate and agree to play." In M. Bekoff & J.A. Byers (eds.) Animal play: Evolutionary, comparative, and ecological perspectives. Cambridge University Press, pp. 97-114. [preprint]

17. Bekoff, M. & Allen, C. 1997† "Cognitive ethology: slayers, skeptics, and proponents." In R.W. Mitchell, N.S. Thompson, & H.L. Miles (eds.) Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals SUNY Press, pp. 313-334.

16. Allen, C. 1997† "Animal cognition and animal minds." In P. Machamer & M. Carrier (eds.) Philosophy and the Sciences of the Mind: Pittsburgh-Konstanz Series in the Philosophy and History of Science vol. 4. Pittsburgh University Press and the Universitätsverlag Konstanz, pp. 227-243.

15. Allen, C. 1997† Animal consciousness Encyclopedia of animal welfare. Greenwood publishers. Marc Bekoff and C. Meaney (eds.).

13. Allen, C. & Bekoff, M. 1995* "Cognitive ethology and the intentionality of animal behaviour." Mind and Language: 10,4:313-328.

12. Allen, C. & Bekoff, M. 1995* "Biological function, adaptation, and natural design." Philosophy of Science: 62,4:609-622. Reprinted in Allen, C., Bekoff, M., and Lauder, G. (eds.) (1998) Nature's Purposes: analyses of function and design in biology, MIT Press. Reprinted in Buller, D.J. (ed.) (1999) Function, Selection, and Design Albany, NY: SUNY Press (Series in Philosophy and Biology).

11. Bekoff, M. & Allen, C. 1995* "Teleology, function, design, and the evolution of animal behaviour." Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10,6:253-263.

10. Allen, C. 1995* "It isn't what you think: a new idea about intentional causation." Noûs 29,1:115-126

9. Allen, C. 1995† "Intentionality: natural and artificial." In Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science J.A. Meyer and H.L. Roitblat (eds.) MIT Press, pp. 93-110

8. Allen, C. 1995† "Star Witness." In J. Feinberg (ed.) Reason and Responsibility, 9th Edition. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth, pp.353-68

7. Allen, C. & Bekoff, M. 1995*† "Function, natural design, and animal behavior: philosophical and ethological considerations." In N.S. Thompson (ed.) Perspectives in Ethology, Volume 11: Behavioral Design. NY: Plenum Press, pp.1-47.

6. Allen, C. & Bekoff, M. 1994* Intentionality, social play, and definition. Biology and Philosophy 9:63-74; DOI:10.1007/BF00849914. Reprinted in Marc Bekoff & D. Jamieson (eds.) (1996) Readings in Animal Cognition MIT Press, pp.229-240

5. Allen, C. & Hauser, M. 1993† "Communication and cognition: is information the connection?" PSA 1992, vol. 2, pp.81-91.

4. Allen, C. 1992* "Mental content." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43:537-553

3. Bekoff, M. & Allen, C. 1992* "Intentional icons: Towards an evolutionary cognitive ethology." Ethology 91:1-16.

2. Allen, C. 1992* "Mental content and evolutionary explanation." Biology and Philosophy 7:1-12

1. Allen, C. & Hauser, M. 1991* Concept attribution in non-human animals: Theoretical and methodological problems in ascribing complex mental processes. Philosophy of Science 58:221-240 doi: 10.1086/289613. Reprinted in Marc Bekoff & D. Jamieson (eds.) (1996) Readings in Animal Cognition MIT Press, pp.47-62

17. Yang Zhao, Wei Xi, Kun Zhao, Xiaohong Wang, Colin Allen, Jizhong Zhao (2018)† Topic Model based Physical-layer Identity Authentication. 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Security (ICCCS2018), Haikou, China, June 8-10, 2018.

16. Jaimie Murdock, Colin Allen, and Simon DeDeo, "The Development of Darwin's Origin of Species". CRDH 2018, March 17, George Mason University, Arlington, VA

15. Murdock, J., Allen, C. "Multi-level computational methods for interdisciplinary research in the HathiTrust Digital Library" (talk) and "Reconstructing historical libraries: Jefferson, Darwin, and the HathiTrust" (poster) at HTRC UnCamp, January 25-26, 2018, UC Berkeley

14. Murdock,J., DeDeo, S., and Allen, C. (2015)† Darwin's Semantic Voyage: Synthesis and Innovation through Exploration and Exploitation. 2015 Conference on Complex Systems (CCS'15). Tempe, Arizona, USA, September 28­October 3, 2015.

13. Jaimie Murdock and Colin Allen (2015)† Visualization Techniques for Topic Model Checking [demo track] in Proceedings of the 29th AAAI Conference (AAAI­15). Austin, Texas, USA, January 25­29, 2015.

12. John Lawrence, Chris Reed, Colin Allen, Simon McAlister, Andrew Ravenscroft, and David Bourget (2014)† Mining arguments from 19th century philosophical texts using topic based modelling. In Proceedings of the First Workshop on Argumentation Mining, pages 79–87, Baltimore, Maryland, June. Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL).

11. Murdock, J., Light, R., Allen, C., and Börner, K (2013)† Mapping the Intersection of Science & Philosophy. in Proceedings of the 2013 Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL). Indianapolis, Indiana, ACM Press, 2013.

10. Murdock, J., Buckner, C., and Allen, C. (2012)† Containing the Semantic Explosion. In Proceedings of the WWW2012 conference workshop PhiloWeb 2012: "Web and Philosophy, Why and What For?", Lyon, France, Apr 17, 2012, Edited by Alexandre Monnin, Harry Halpin, and Leslie Carr, CEUR workshop proceedings, Vol. 859.

9. Niepert, M., Buckner, C., Murdock, J., and Allen, C. (2008)† InPhO: A System for Collaboratively Populating and Extending a Dynamic Ontology. (demo abstract) In Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, page 429, ACM Press, 2008.

8. Wallach, W., Allen, C. & Smit, I. (2005)† Machine Morality: Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches for Modeling Human Moral Faculties. In Proceedings of AAAI Workshop on Machine Ethics, Washington, D.C., November 2005.

7. Allen, C., Smit, I., & Wallach, W. (2005)† Artificial morality: top-down, bottom-up, and hybrid approaches. In Brey, P., Grodzinsky, F., & Introna, L. (eds.) Ethics of New Information Technology: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of Computer Ethics: Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE 2005), Encschede, Netherlands: Center for Telematics and Information Technology (CTIT); pp. 21-28.

6. Allen, C., Nodelman, U., & Zalta, E. (2003)† Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Dynamic Reference Work. (abstract) In Proceedings of the Third ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (May 27-31, 2003), New York: Association for Computing Machinery Publications, p. 383

5. Allen, C. (2002)† Calculated Morality: Ethical Computing in the Limit. In Smit, I. and Lasker, G. E. (eds.), Cognitive, Emotive and Ethical Aspects of Decision Making and Human Action Vol. I, IIAS, Windsor, Canada.

4. Nodelman, U., Allen, C. & Zalta, E. (2002)† Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Dynamic Reference Work. (abstract) In Proceedings of the Second ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (July 14-18, 2002), New York: Association for Computing Machinery Publications, p. 380

3. Allen, C., Nodelman, U., & Zalta, E. (2001)† Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Dynamic Reference Work. (abstract) In Proceedings of the First ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (June 24-28, 2001) New York: Association for Computing Machinery Publications, p. 457

2. Allen, C. (1997)† The evolution of reference. (abstract) Advances in Ethology 32 (Supplement to Ethology): 111

1. Allen, C. (1991)† On (not) defining play. American Zoologist 31(5):11A

31. Allen, C. 2018. Review of Chauncey Maher Plant Minds: A Philosophical Defense, Routledge, 2017. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2017-12-09 ndpr.nd.edu/news/plant-minds-a-philosophical-defense/

30. Black, D., Allen, C. 2017. Out of the Sludge: How Vertebrates Came to Have Subjective Experience. (Review of TE Feinberg & JM Mallatt The Ancient Origins of Consciousness, MIT Press 2016.) Bioscience, bix111, doi: 10.1093/biosci/bix111.

29. Allen, C. and Breithaupt, F. 2017. Commentary: Someday, you might take the robot’s side — and then what? Chicago Tribune, Friday Oct 27, 2017.

28. Allen, C. 2014. From Disembodied Bytes To Robots That Think & Act Like Humans. Footnote1, January 30, 2014, http://footnote1.com/from-disembodied-bytes-to-robots-that-think-act-like-humans/.

27. Allen, C. 2014. Why Intelligence Requires Both Body and Brain. Footnote1, January 27, 2014, http://footnote1.com/why-intelligence-requires-both-body-and-brain/.

26. Allen, C. 2013. Review of David J. Gunkel The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics (MIT Press). Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, February 13, 2013.

25. Allen, C. 2012. Do you see what I see? Review of MINDREADING ANIMALS: The Debate over What Animals Know about Other Minds. Robert W. Lurz. xviii + 245 pp. The MIT Press, 2011.American Scientist, March-April 2012

24. Allen, C. 2011. The Future of Moral Machines. New York Times Online, Dec. 25, 2011, http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/25/the-future-of-moral-machines/ ; co-published in On The Human, National Humanities Center, Dec. 26, 2011, http://onthehuman.org/2011/12/the-future-of-moral-machines/.

23. Thomas Suddendorf, Mark E. Borrello, Colin Allen, Gregory Radick 2011. If I could talk to the animals. Book symposium on Gregory Radick: The simian tongue: The long debate about animal language. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Metascience 21: 253-267DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9553-1

22. Allen, C. 2010. Review of David McFarland, Guilty Robots, Happy Dogs: The Question of Alien Minds (OUP). Quarterly Review of Biology 85:227.

21. Buckner, C., Shriver, A., Crowley, S., Allen, C. 2009. How "weak" mindreaders inherited the earth: Commentary on Peter Carruthers' "How We Know Our Own Minds: Mindreading and Metacognition", Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32: 140-141.

20. Allen, C. 2005. "Evolving phenomenal consciousness: Commentary on Peter Carruthers' Phenomenal Consciousness". Anthropology & Philosophy 6(1): 34-40. [Originally published on Sito Web Italiano per la Filosofia, MINDE forum (15 March 2001): http://www.swif.uniba.it/lei/mind/forums/allen.htm]

19. Allen, C. 2004. Review of Do Animals Think? by C. Wynne. Quarterly Review of Biology 79(4): 431-432.

18. Allen, C. 2003. Review of Eating Apes, D. Peterson and K. Ammann International Journal of Primatology 24(5), October, 2003: 1139-1141.

17. Allen, C. 2002. "A skeptic's progress" - review of Povinelli, D. Folk Physics for Apes. Biology and Philosophy 17(5):695-702.

16. Allen, C. 2002. "Animal Ethics for Students" - review of Ethics, Humans and Other Animals: An Introduction with Readings by Rosalind Hursthouse Anthrozoös, 15 (1): 92-94

15. Allen, C. 2000 "The evolution of rational demons." Behavior and Brain Sciences: 23,5: 742.

14. Allen, C. & Bekoff, M. 2000 "Species of confusion: A short reply to Michael Corner's review of Species of Mind" Journal of Consciousness Studies 7: 83-85.

13. Bekoff, M. & Allen, C. 2000 "Social play is more than a Pavlovian romp." Behavior and Brain Sciences: 23:250-251.

12. Allen, C. 1998 Review of Language, thought, and consciousness. P. Carruthers. Philosophical Psychology 11,1:91-95

11. Allen, C. 1998 "Animal concepts." Behavioral and Brain Sciences: 21,1:66

10. Allen, C. 1996 "Comparative psychology not folk phylogeny, please." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19: 122.

9. Allen, C. 1995 Review of The logical foundations of cognition. J. Macnamara and G.E. Reyes (eds.). Canadian Philosophical Reviews/Revues Canadienne de Comptes rendu en Philosophie 15 40-42

8. Allen, C. 1995 Review of Shame and necessity. B. Williams. Mind 104:214-219

7. Allen, C. 1995 "Anatomy Dissected." Animal Behaviour 49:841-842

6. Allen, C. 1994 Review of Bad Science. G. Taubes. Sciphers: 15(1):8-9

5. Allen, C. 1992 "Why Eschol-Wachman behavioral notation is not enough." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15,2:266-267

4. Allen, C. 1992 "Monkeys mind." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15,1:147

3. Allen, C. 1991 Review of Philosophy of biology. M. Ruse (ed.). Teaching Philosophy 14,4:423-427

2. Allen, C. 1991 "Toward a functionalist theory of consciousness." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14,3:438-439

1. Hauser, M. & Allen, C. 1987 Review of The meaning of primate signals. R. Harré & V. Reynolds (eds.). Ethology and Sociobiology, 8:167-169.

8. Jaimie Murdock, Jiaan Zeng, Colin Allen 2015. Towards Cultural-Scale Models of Full Text HTRC ACS Technical Report. arXiv:1512.05004

7. Allen, C., Murdock, J., Buckner, C., and Rose, R. 2013. "Computational Philosophy and the Examined Text: A Tale of Two Encyclopedias". APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers, Spring 2013, 12,2: 28-30.

6. Niepert, M., Buckner, C., and Allen, C. 2007. "InPhO: The Indiana Philosophy Ontology". APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers, Fall 2007, 7,1: 26-28.

5. Allen, C. & Jagodzinski, C. 2006. "From SEP to SEPIA: How and why Indiana University is helping the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy." Against the Grain, 18,4: 42-43.

4. Allen, C. & Menzel, C. 1995-2004 The Logic Daemon and Quizmaster Web-based interactive logic software to accompany Allen & Hand's Logic Primer. URL=http://logic.tamu.edu/.

3. Menzel, C. & Allen, C. 1999-2004 Power of Logic Web Site Interactive web site accompaniment to The Power of Logic, C. Stephen Layman, McGraw-Hill. URL=http://www.poweroflogic.com/.

2. Allen, C. & Zalta, E. 1999 "Lookupd Problems in Apple's Mac OS X Server" URL=http://www.stepwise.com/Articles/Technical/Lookupd.html, Stepwise May 20, 1999.

1. Allen, C. and Dhagat, M. 1997 Lisp Primer An introduction to the Lisp programming language on the World Wide Web at http://colinallen.dnsalias.org/lp/. Distributed on CD-ROM with the Brighton University Resource Kit for Students

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